Sunday, March 29, 2020

Blyth’s Hawk Eagle Spizaetus alboniger (Blyth) 1845


Blyth’s Hawk Eagle Spizaetus alboniger (Blyth) 1845
Other Name: Black and White Hawk Eagle
Resident

Status and distribution
This species is found resident throughout Malaysia.

Description
Adult black and white distinctive. Up right crest distinctive. Underpart white with black streak on the breast and barred remaining lower part. Throat white with mesial streak black. Upperpart black sometimes appear dark brownish black on the wing. broader compare to terminal.
Barring below extend to thigh. Tail is diagnostic to this species where black terminal, pale subterminal

Some adult show pale white supercilium, which require further observation and study to see the relationship between age or sexes.

Identification of male and female plumage can be read in the post here.

Inflight wing shape typical of Hawk Eagle and black and white plumage are distinctive. Wing feather at leas 4 black band.

Juvenile very similar to Wallace’s Hawk Eagle. Mainly brown all over. See confusion species.

Juvenile (up to first year)
Very similar to Wallace’s Hawk Eagle. Overall rusty brown plumage. Crest always erect with circular nostril. Throat paler and thighed paler. Faced and cheeked rusty brown. Underpart of body rusty brown. Crown darker brown compare to body. Upperpart of body brown with pale tip on feather.
Tail band show only part currently differ from wallaces where terminal dark band slightly broader then subterminal pale band. Overall roughly 5 tail band can be seen.

Subadult
Heavily moulting on underpart. Tail show marking of adult. Underpart of body can be seen on thighed and vent and at least some part of the mid body. Breast streak at this age are still very little.

Moulting four years to adult. However every plumage require further documentation as this were poorly recorded.

Confusion Species
Highly confuseable depending on age to Wallace’s Hawk Eagle. Juvenile bird moult begin on thigh <= => wallaces on breast.
Differ greatly on the tail banding in adult. See description above <= => wallaces evenly devided tail band.

From Indomalayan Honey Buzzard tweedled morph, by crest always erect <= =>drop floopy in Honey Buzzard. Nostril shape which is circular <= => slit in honey buzzard. Position of leg and shape of head provide best clue to separation.

Geographical Variation
No other was recognize.

Behaviour
Many of this species behaviour are poorly recorded. Hunting are mainly in perching hunting method. Diet remain poorly recorded with one crow sighted on nest. Other are small mammals include species such as Low’s Squirrel Himalayan Stripe Squirrel. Reptile not identified in this country however lizard have been seen. This was further confirmed through Well’s 1990.

In regards to method use, it was believed to have been based on the habitat of which hunting in highland and lowland however this require further research. This however the bird never observed to hunt below canopy compare to Wallace’s which hunt and track prey below canopy.

Breeding photo and video see the topic of photo and video.

Habitat
In Peninsula Malaysia this species is seem mainly in submontane elevation however there is occasion where it wander lower such as the Lembah Bujang and Taiping Lake Garden. See nesting altitude. Seen up to 1,500m asl.
Other lowland forest include foot hill of Maxwell Hill. A lot of nest were also observed below 500m asl.

Breeding
Nesting poorly documented however recorded year round. Nest in in few location from Pahang, perak and kedah which has include incubation on February, August and September. Period observed including February to March, September to December. Eaglet with juvenile plumage at nest recorded in April, November and May. Juvenile hatch plumage recorded in March and May.
Tree were estimate at 40 meter high emergent at that location at the altitude of about 470m asl. 

Display behaviour non recorded. Copulating non recorded. Nest building and incubation period poorly recorded. Both male and female are seen in the nest. Only once there was a display observed in Perak which describe “One individual believe to be the male soar at very high altitude. The bird make a fast and agrresive stoop verticle downwards and lift itself up later to a perch. Anotehr individual believe to be a female was observed circling and observing nearby. Time of observation was 11am” There was no nest observed during this display.

Nesting tree selection usually on slope area and emergent tree. This with additional criteria of the location required a bare tree nearby of the approximately same high to the nest where perching bird can oversee the nest. Only one nest where it was observed both parent actively adding new fresh twig to the nest.

Nest in lower altitude. In sabah Smytheis 1999 Nest was location at 400m. No difference in P. Malaysia where nest were found in the same altitude. However nest was also found above 1200m asl in Genting Highland and Cameroon Highland.

Dependency period unknown. In all nest only one egg and one eaglet was raised.


Photo
Nest 1
Nest 2

Video
Nest 1
- Video 2 - Nestling at nest.
- Video 6 - Eaglet age Day 36-42
- Video 7 - Eaglet Day 40-46
- Video 12 - Eaglet at day 45-51
- Video 13 - Adult near nest
- Video 15 - Upclose day 51-57

Reference
Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Bloomsburry, London

Handbook to Birds of The World, Lynx Edicions, Bercolona, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Smythies B.E Revised by Davison G.W.H, 1999,  The Birds Of Borneo, Natural History Publication, Sabah Malaysia. (ISBN 983-812-028-6)

Susan Myers, 2009, A Field Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Talisman, Singapore

Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D.Round, 1991, A guide to the Birds of Thailand, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd Bangkok

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1, Academic Press, London UK

James A. Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W. Brickle & Frank E. Rheindt, 2016,  Birds of the Indonesia Archipelago Greater Sundas and Wallacea, Lynx Edicion, Bercelona

James Fergusan Lee and David A Christie 2001, Raptors of The World, Christopher Helm, Great Britian (ISBN 0-618-12762-3)

Medway & David R Well 1976, The Birds of the Malay Peninsula Volume V: Conclusion and Survey of Every Species, Broadwaterpress, England



Friday, March 27, 2020

Grey-Capped Woodpecker Picoides/Dendrocopos canicapillus (Blyth) 1845


Grey-Capped Woodpecker Picoides/Dendrocopos canicapillus (Blyth) 1845
Other Name: Gray Headed Pygmy Woodpecker, Grey Crowned Pygmy.
Resident

Status and distribution
Resident uncommon distributed south to Johore. Less common then Sunday Pygmy Woodpecker

Description


Gray Capped Woodpecker
Brown capped Woodpecker
Other name
see above
Sunda woodpecker, Malaysia Woodpecker
Upperpart
Black, wings, lower back and rumped black broadly barred with white
Browner with white barred
Generally sooty compared to black of Gray Capped
Underpart
Lack of red on streaked brownish buff to black
Belly buffish-orange
Dirty white below with brown streak
Tail
Central tail feather lack of white bar
Central tail feather always white barred
Rump and upper tail covert white
Head
Crown gray, malar stripe usually faint or lacking.
Broad dark patch on ear covert
Brown crown, white unmarked throat, broad distinct malar stripe
Sex
Male: Small red streak on side of hind crown
Female: Average slightly larger than male. Red of male’s crown sides and naped replace by black

Male: Red streak behind eye
Female: Slightly larger than male. Lack of red on hindcrown

Bare part: Bill grey to blackish, paler at base and on lower mandible. Greyish to olive grey feet and leg. Orbital skin slaty.

Confusion Species
See description

Geographical Variation
According to Well’s 1990 subspecies auratus Eyton 1845 was recorded. However the subspecies may not be confidently separated in field.

Behaviour
At least in this part of the P.Malaysia mostly were seen in pair.  Otherwise poorly documented. Diet poorly documented.

Habitat
Park and garden. Housing area which is wooded. Separated in habitat from Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker where the latter are found in mangrove <= => Grey Capped Woodpecker absent in mangrove. Plantation, secondary growth and coastal woodland (casuarina).

Have been recorded up to 1830m asl in other part of the world
Note: Overlap with Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker especially in park area.

Breeding
Very similar to Sunda Pygmy where nested in rotten-tip wood. Breeding begin in February - September. No recent record on this species nesting in recent years and poorly documented overall.

Photo


Reference
Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D.Round, 1991, A guide to the Birds of Thailand, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd Bangkok

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula,Academic Press, London UK

Hans Winkler, David A. Christie & David Nurney, 1995, Woodpecker An Identification Guide to the Woodpecker of the World, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston New York

James A. Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W. Brickle & Frank E. Rheindt, 2016,  Birds of the Indonesia Archipelago Greater Sundas and Wallacea, Lynx Edicion, Bercelona

Salim Ali & S. Dillon Ripley, 2001,  Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Volume 4 Frogmouth to Pittas,Oxford University Press , New Delhi


Thursday, March 26, 2020

Cotton Pygmy-Goose Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin) 1789


Cotton Pygmy-Goose Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin) 1789
Other Name: Asian Pigmy-goose, Cotton Teal, White-Quilled Pygmy Goose, White Pgymy Goose, Quacky-Duck
Resident

Status and distribution
Locally resident. Occur south to Johore. This species is rather common in Perak and Selangor however there is no breeding record have been observed. (see Breeding information)

Description

Male: Whitish duck with crown, upperpart and necked color blackish- appear glossy greenish-. Flanks washed grey, mottles brown towards the rear end. Blackish undertail covert. Tail black
Female: Similar to male. All blackish area of male are replaced with brown. Eye colour  female brownish<= => crimson male. Black band across the eye in female <= => male absent
Juvenile: Resemble female with mottling on underpart more prominent. Eye-line broader with complete lack of green gloss upperpart.
In flight: Broad white band on flight feather above and below.

Male Eclipse: Retain male wing patter with darker upperparts and face and fore necked whiter. Bill appear on average more yellow-green at based.

Hybridisation
None reported

Confusion Species
No risk of confusion

Geographical Variation
Nettapus coromandelianus coromandelianus nominate race are only subspecies found in this part of the region. Nettapus coromandelianus albipennis Australia only.

Behaviour
Mainly feed on aquatic plant. This species is know to be in group. Rarely does this species is sighted alone. Have been recorded up to 500 at one time.
Feed on surface however do dive to avoid captured. Clumsy on land

Habitat
Found mainly in man made lake. In Malaysia commonly found in ex mining pool, open country lake and undisturbed lake in plantation.
In Well’s 1990, “salt water usage have been recorded from Krabi Mangrove and a female mist-netted by pond on cleared back-mangrove land behind the sea bund at Kuala Selangor.” This however there is no recent record on such usage in recent years.

Breeding
Claim to nest in tree hold however no local information for this species.

Photo

Reference

Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Bloomsburry, London

Sebastien Reeber, 2015,  Waterfowl Of North America, Europe, And Asia An Identification Guide, Princeton and Oxford, Paris. (ISBN 13579108642)

Steve Madge and Hilary Burn, 1992, Wildfowl An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans Of The World,Christopher Helm, London. (ISBN 0-7136-3647-5)

Susan Myers, 2009, A Field Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Talisman, Singapore

Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D.Round, 1991, A guide to the Birds of Thailand, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd Bangkok

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1, Academic Press, London UK

James A. Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W. Brickle & Frank E. Rheindt, 2016,  Birds of the Indonesia Archipelago Greater Sundas and Wallacea, Lynx Edicion, Bercelona

Medway & David R Well 1976, The Birds of the Malay Peninsula Volume V: Conclusion and Survey of Every Species, Broadwaterpress, England

Nils Van Duivendijk 2011, Advance Bird Id Handbook The Western Paleartctic, New Holland UK (ISBN 978 1 78009 022 1)

Pamela C. Rasmussen 2012, Birds of South Asia, Lynx Edicions, Bercolona (ISBN 978-84-96553-85-9)

Salim Ali & S. Dillon Ripley, 1981,  Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Volume 1 ,Oxford University Press , London

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus) 1758


Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus) 1758
Other Name: Tufted Pochard
Migrant-Vagrant-

Status and distribution
Previously as vagrant where population have been increasing over the years each migratory year. Found south to Perak i.e Malim Mawar, Batu Gajah and no further south have been recorded a part from Malacca in 1972.
This species can be even more widely distributed in the northern and central Peninsula Malaysia compare to existing knowledge. Migratory route in Malaysia are unknown however good sighting from East Malaysia provide clue that this species can be sighted south to Johore.
One sighting in Malacca (Well’s 1990) in February 1972 however not recent record of this species  southwards of Perak have been reported.
A species well recorded in Sabah. One sighting in an discharge pond of palm oil. The bird was observed together with Wandering Whistling Duck. 

Description
Very compact looking duck with appearance of black and white. Tuff can be seen however this is not the case all the time due to different angle of the bird in field. Leg and feet grey.
Male: Side of body clean cut white with dark blackish on the rest of the body. Head usually violet or purplish gloss however this marking usually seen as black in field.
Bill pale blue grey with poorly define whitish yellow.
Male Eclipse: Black part replaced by blackish brown; flank and belly dull brown. Crest are short.
Female: From male, the side of body replace with pale brown and remaining part of body are dark brown. Occasionally white ring of feather at forehead around base of bill but much narrower then in Scaup.
Juvenile: Crest are absent. Usually similar to adult female with head blackish brown with pale facial patch.
Inflight: Show white winged bar at base of flight feather with white underpart.

Hybridisation
Tufted duck X Common Pochard
Tufted Duck X Ring Necked Duck
Tufted Duck X Ferruginous Duck
Lesser Scoup X Tuffted Duck

Confusion Species
Compare to Ferruginous and Baer’s Pochards by lack of white on under tail covert and by yellow eyes. Head shape is good to note for differences.
From Greater Scaup lack of pale oval shape on side of head; white facial patch on juvenile. In flight by black covert of Tuffted compare to gray in GS.
From Lesser Scaup by lack of small bump towards the rear of crown providing the shape of the Tuffted.

Geographical Variation
Non recognized (Well’s 1990 and Madge.S & Burn.H 1988)

Behaviour
No local details. Well’s 1990 mention “Dives for food”.
In Malaysia most bird were seen singly until year 2019 where small group were sighted.

Habitat
Found up to 1,300m asl. In Malaysia this have been lowland and no record in highland. NO sighting in major hydroelectric lake such as in Belum Temenggor. Other lake which have been keep an eye yield no result such as Fraser’s Hill although Well’s 1990 mention that sighting were documented on 10 December 1975.

Open country lake and in Malim Mawar this was ex mining pond with active activity.

Breeding
Not documented locally. Species status are currently migrant.

Photo

Video

Reference

Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Bloomsburry, London

Sebastien Reeber, 2015,  Waterfowl Of North America, Europe, And Asia An Identification Guide, Princeton and Oxford, Paris. (ISBN 13579108642)

Steve Madge and Hilary Burn, 1992, Wildfowl An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans Of The World,Christopher Helm, London. (ISBN 0-7136-3647-5)

Susan Myers, 2009, A Field Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Talisman, Singapore

Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D.Round, 1991, A guide to the Birds of Thailand, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd Bangkok

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1, Academic Press, London UK

James A. Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W. Brickle & Frank E. Rheindt, 2016,  Birds of the Indonesia Archipelago Greater Sundas and Wallacea, Lynx Edicion, Bercelona

Medway & David R Well 1976, The Birds of the Malay Peninsula Volume V: Conclusion and Survey of Every Species, Broadwaterpress, England

Nils Van Duivendijk 2011, Advance Bird Id Handbook The Western Paleartctic, New Holland UK (ISBN 978 1 78009 022 1)

Pamela C. Rasmussen 2012, Birds of South Asia, Lynx Edicions, Bercolona (ISBN 978-84-96553-85-9)

Salim Ali & S. Dillon Ripley, 1981,  Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan Volume 1 ,Oxford University Press , London


Monday, March 23, 2020

Lesser Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis (Muller and Schlegel) 1841

Lesser Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis (Muller and Schlegel) 1841
Other Name: Lesser Fishing Eagle, Himalayan Grey Headed Fishing Eagle
Resident (NT)

Status and distribution
Common resident (up to 300m) throughout Peninsula south to Johore. Species occur in inland lake system, river and also forest waterway. This species can occur in higher number in certain location where good habitat is available as recorded in Temmenggor Lake. This species is also much commoner compare to the latter species however, never recorded in coastal area.

Description
Greyish head and necked. Upperpart brown to dark brown with blackish or dark brown flight feather. Underpart brown lower breast to mid of body before cut off by white on thigh, vent and belly. Tail brown. In flight, blackish brown flight feather with brown underwing covert. Eye yellow, leg and feet pale yellow. Bill dark with gape and cere blusih.
Juvenile:Pale brown above. Throat and breast pale brown with breast indistinctly streaked sometimes unmarked. Thigh, vent and belly pale brown. In flight, form white on inner wed with narrow dark band across secondaries to primaries.

Confusion Species
Very easily confuse to Grey-Headed Fish Eagle. At rest wing of the Lesser Fish Eagle both adult and juvenile reaching the tail tip while the Grey-Headed Fish Eagle are short of tail tip. Distinctively barred dark terminal band with white subterminal band are good characteristic especially in flight. Juvenile of the Grey Headed Fish Eagle are more heavily marked and streak. Check habitat.

Geographical Variation
I.h.humilis only known subspecies (Wells 1990 & Fuguson-Lee 2001)

Behaviour
Tend to observed to hunt singly even though nesting. In large lake it was observed to practice soaring hunting method. In river area and location where perch are available, the Lesser Fish Eagle was observed to detect its prey from the perch itself. In many observation bird are observed hunting between 930am-1045am. The species are known for perching hunter. There have no documentation for soaring hunting documented as of date. Observation in Taman Negara remain bird hunting from still perch. It is documented the species hunt in pair in water body area (lake) however this is not observed in large river area. Observation for example in Kinabatangan and Taman Negara show hunting were singly.
Diet were strictly fish (Naroaji 2006), however there is one record showing pierce on due to snake bite may have suggest that this species also hunt for swimming fish (Well 1990)

Habitat
Lake, forested river, large river system and also in smaller stream. None observed in coastal. Riparian area adjacent to river may have been a good habitat and worth conserving as species are related to river.


Breeding
Raptor nest was observed between 20-30m above ground. Tree have never been observed to be emerging and nest always situated below canopy. Nest always situated near water body. Breeding record began in Feb-June (Naroaji 2006) which is rather similar to P.Malaysia. Other document for this species in breeding are poorly documented.

Photo
https://naturecore.blogspot.com/2013/08/ncrru-lesser-fish-eagle-nikon-p90-eye.html


Reference

Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Betram E.Smythies 2001, The Birds of Burma, Natural History Publication, Kota Kinabalu (ISBN 983-812-049-9)

Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Bloomsburry, London

Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A & Sargatal,J eds, 1997, Handbook to Birds of The World Vol 1, Lynx Edicions, Bercolona, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Susan Myers, 2009, A Field Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Talisman, Singapore

Boonsong Lekagul & Philip D.Round, 1991, A guide to the Birds of Thailand, Saha Karn Bhaet Co., Ltd Bangkok

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1, Academic Press, London UK

James Fergusan Lee and David A Christie 2001, Raptors of The World, Christopher Helm, Great Britian (ISBN 0-618-12762-3)

Rishad Naoroji 2007, Birds of Prey of the Indian Subcontinent, OM Book International, New Delhi (ISBN 8187107699)


Sunday, March 22, 2020

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (Tunstall 1771)


Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Other Name: Black-Cheeked Falcon, Duck Falcon, Shaheen Falcon
Migrant/Resident

Status and distribution
Regular in Peninsula Malaysia up to 6000 feet asl in Genting Highland. Resident race from Falco.p.enerstii have been recorded breeding from Perlis south to Perak but occur south to Johore. Breeding up to 3000feet asl. This subspecies could also involve in local migration as well.

Description
Large falcon with dark grey to blackish above and variable pale white to rufousy below with barring and spotting. Migratory race with moustached and resident race with full hood and darker above.

In flight, the wing underwing marked blackish. Pointed wing are distinctive. Immature head patter are rather similar to adult with upperpart dark brown compare to black. Underpart can be heavily streak compare to barred of the adult.

Migratory white cheek: In peninsula Malaysia there is 2 subspecies of white cheek migratory Peregrine namely the F.p.japonicus and  F.p.calidus. Both subspecies show an extend of white cheek with dark moustached where F.p.japonicus show thicker moustached making the cheek look smaller omapre to the latter. On upperpart, both species show greyish darker in F.p.japonicus than in F.p.calidus. Most very pale individual may would have been F.p.calidus. On the underpart, the F.p.japonicus show distinctly broken bar on underpart especially on side of breast on white to pale rusty white body. Remaining part are clearly broken bar. F.p.calidus show more spot where clear spot can already be noted on the side of breast replacing bar of the F.p.jaonicus on white to pinkish white body. In flight both underwing show fine dark bar on pale flight feather with fine barred on wing covert. Juvenile of both subspecies is very similar and can be doubtfully separate in field. Brownish to dark brown above with pale forehead. Throat buff and remaining underpart buff with dark streak. Eye ring and leg yellow, fresh to bluish in juvenile. (Details require further study including some F.p.calidus  at reast show wing extended slightly below wing compare to F.p.japonicus. This at current time I do not have enough individual for confirmation)
Migratory hooded: One subspecies where is rarely encountered which is F.p.peregrinator. Fully hooded and entire upperpart dark with pinkish white throat gradually into rufous on remaining underpart. Barred variant have dark bar on the rufous underpart and somewhat more spaced out compare to F.p.enerstii. Unbarred variant uniform rufous underpart.
Resident: Fully hooded and entire upperpart dark to blackish. Underpart pale grey gradually fate into rufous from mid body downwards. Very dense barring below.
Juvenile of F.p.peregrinator and F.p.enerstii are very similar and can be doubtfully separate in field. Both show fully hooded and dark streak below. Heavier in F.p.enerstii and may show pale rufous in some individual. Mainly white throat suggest to be F.p.peregrinator and barring distance on the under part shall be taken note in separation of this two subspecies.

Confusion Species
Easily confuse with Oriental Hobby which is much smaller. Note on hood shape. At rest, Peregrine falcon tail reach tail tip while Oriental Hobby way pass tail tip.

Geographical Variation
Falco.p. japonensis and Falco.p. calidus both were winter visitor and passage migrant.
Falco.p. enerstii are known resident subspecies. This species have been observed lowland to highland with record from Kinabalu National Park, Frasers Hill, Cameroon Highland.
Falco p. peregrinator was rare subspecies. Many record remain doubtful. Some of the more confirmed recorded were from Fraser’s Hill and another from Genting Highland. Record were during migratory period suggesting this species were mainly migratory. N record of this subspecies in the period of May -September.


Behaviour
Perch on a vantage point to search for food. Majority of prey consist of green pigeon, bulbul, Black Naped Oriole and wader. One observation in Penang, a migratory subspecies attempt to hunt a whimbrel. In Teluk Air Tawar, Penang, it was observed an attempt on a roasting flock of wader. Other such as attempt on a Little Egret was observed as well suggest they make take larger prey item. Element of surprise are used in an observation in Langkawi where as pursuit in many other location.

Majority of the hunting method was observed as soaring hunter where prey were detected in flight. A few in Taiping, was observed as perching hunter. The bird was sighted to on perch taking flight and return within 2 minit time with a prey. The bird was not sighted nearby during the flight however return with yellow vented bulbul.

Hunting have been observed in area such as high rise building, open country and forested area however there is no stopping-hunting have been recorded.
The same record mention by well’s. Perhaps the technique of hunting require further study in Malaysia.

Habitat
Lime stone, hilly area, lowland to montane forest, mangrove, mudflat, and open area.

Bird seem to be able to leave in area of housing such as the record from Taiping.

Breeding
Copulation on late December – February. Incubation started in first half of February (Well’s 1999)

Photo


Video

Reference

Reference

Ben F.King & Edwards C.Dickson, 1989, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Collins, Grafton Street, London

Betram E.Smythies 2001, The Birds of Burma, Natural History Publication, Kota Kinabalu (ISBN 983-812-049-9)

Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide To The Birds of South-East Asia, Bloomsburry, London

Dick Forsman 1999, The Raptors of Europe and The Middle East, Christopher Helm, London. (ISBN 978-0-7136-8821-4)

Dick Forsman 2016, Flight Identification of Raptors of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Christopher Helm, London. (ISBN 978-1-4729-1361-6)

David R Wells, 1999, Birds of The Thai Malay Peninsula Vol 1, Academic Press, London UK

James A. Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W. Brickle & Frank E. Rheindt, 2016,  Birds of the Indonesia Archipelago Greater Sundas and Wallacea, Lynx Edicion, Bercelona

James Fergusan Lee and David A Christie 2001, Raptors of The World, Christopher Helm, Great Britian (ISBN 0-618-12762-3)

Pamela C. Rasmussen 2012, Birds of South Asia, Lynx Edicions, Bercolona (ISBN 978-84-96553-85-9)

Rishad Naoroji 2007, Birds of Prey of the Indian Subcontinent, OM Book International, New Delhi (ISBN 8187107699)

Salim Ali & S. Dillon Ripley, 1981,  Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan ,Oxford University Press , London



Saturday, February 1, 2020

Osprey Padion haliaetus (Linnaeus 1758)


Osprey Padion haliaetus (Linnaeus 1758)
Other name: Fish Hawk

Status and distribution
Common non breeding visitor south to Johore. Overwinter population majority consist of juvenile plumage also recorded from May to August. Adult presumably young adult have been sighted in commonly in Perak on the same period. Possible due to not ready to breed. It was said that some individual does not bread until age 7 years and above.
Migrant from Australasia region have never been confirmed though was suspected in many literature.

Description

Forehead dark brown,centre of crown and naped buff with dark shaft. Blackish eye-stripe through eye across the white faced to hind necked. Rest of upperpart dark brown. Underpart white with breast band. Largish raptor with dark brown above white below and head with dark eye stripe. In flight, the raptor somawhat obtaining broadwing with narrow finger with squarish tail. Underwing white with drak trialing edge, narrow barring on flight feather, black greater covert band and dark carpal arch.
Sexes variation : Size variation in this species is very close perhaps 3-4% (Fuggerson-Lee 2001). Female also have darker heavier marking on breast compare to male and somewhat more bulky looking compare to male. This perhaps due to the weight of the female where mention in Fuggerson-Lee 2001 is 14% heavier.
Juvenile : Similar to adult with heavier streaking on nape and crown. Pale edging on upperpart.

Confusion species
Possibly confused with other raptor such as Common Buzzard. The latter have broader wing lack of dark eye stripe and usually yellow feet.

Oriental Honey Buzzard & Crested Honey Buzzard have somewhat longer tail and small head appearance. In flight Honey Buzzard have 6 finger oppose to five finger of the osprey. Also Osprey are lack of body marking as in Honey Buzzard.

Short toed Snake Eagle by distinctively paler greyish upperwing covert and by plainer underwing

Booted Eagle by distincly patterned upperwing and uppertail covert which is white. 

Geographical variation
P.h.haliaetus  common migrant in the country. P.h.cristatus is not definitely recorded.

Total 4 races recognize.

Behaviour
Spend a lot of time flying above body of water and sometimes hover in hunt for fishes. Osprey also involve in “foot-dragging” where is rather common sight a long ex mining pool. During hunting, the Osprey may hover at the height of about 30 meter and dive straight to the prey. It have been observed that majority of dive from hovering method are almost vertical plunge. Prey will taken up from the water surface by both feet with head pointing forward. Any heavier prey are drag to the edge and beaches. Nevertheless, they are also know to drown when too heavy fish are caught.

Still-hunt from perch have been recorded however not known if this habit was seen in malaysia.
(I have personally not record such behaviour in malaysia.)

Food

Almost entirely on fish. Do not pirate other species however in some text mention this species been rob even by heron.


Habitat
Fresh and salt water area including ex mining land and brackish lake.

Can occur up to 2000 and 3300m asl.

Interesting fact
Osprey toes are all same size with one outer toes which is reversible. This adaptation for catch slippery fishes from surface of water. A part from that, Osprey is the only raptor that will dive into the water for its prey.




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